Widespread metabolic dysregulation in different organs in type 2 diabetes

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Newswise — The most typical change in people with type 2 diabetes is a lack of insulin secretion and decreased sensitivity of various organs to insulin. To find out what happens in these organs when type 2 diabetes develops, researchers in the current study focused on cell islets in the pancreas, where insulin is produced, and the main tissue on which insulin acts, namely the liver. We examined proteins in both: skeletal muscle, fat, and blood.

Researchers compared proteins from samples of people with type 2 diabetes, pre-diabetes, the stage before full-blown type 2 diabetes, and people who had no diabetes at all. The results showed far more disturbances in metabolic pathways than previously known. There were also correlations between changes and different stages of the disease.

“We detected higher or lower than normal levels of many proteins in tissues from people in various stages of the disease. Full-onset type 2 diabetes showed more widespread abnormalities in lipid and glucose metabolism and energy production in the liver, muscle and fat,” said Professor Claes Wadelius, who coordinated the study. increase.

The study is based on tissue samples collected from donors and healthy individuals at various stages of disease. The samples were collected with the strategic initiative EXODIAB, led by Professor Olle Korsgren in Uppsala.

Using new techniques, researchers have been able to quantify thousands of proteins from each organ, giving a view of metabolism never before possible.

“Techniques for measuring proteins have evolved rapidly in recent years, and our colleagues at the University of Copenhagen who participated in this study are world leaders in this field,” says Klev Diamanti, who conducted the analysis at Uppsala with Associate Professor Marco Cavalli and Prof. says Dr. Jan Erickson.

In summary, the findings demonstrate highly perturbed metabolism in different pathways and different stages of disease in the examined organs. This data points to a new potential causative mechanism of type 2 diabetes, which can be further investigated to look for new ways to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes.

“Our results may also support the development of simple tests that identify people at high risk for diabetes and its complications, and indicate which type of intervention is best for them,” said the clinical diabetes scientist. says Jan Erickson.

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